Not Traditional, Original

01.2.5 Ignatius Epistles Still only Call Old Testament Scripture

Continuing with the pattern that we saw in Clement’s epistle there are again no Scripture references to New Testament epistles in either the long or short versions of the epistles by Ignatius deemed to be genuine. In fact, there are no Scripture references at all in the short versions. In the long versions, as we have talked about in another post, there are numerous Scripture references seemingly given as elaborations, but in every case they either reference Old Testament verses or Gospel citations. The gospel citations, however, are not limited just to the words of the Lord. For example,

For says the Scripture, “Many bodies of the saints that slept arose,”[1]

This verse, a reference to Matthew 27:52, is part of the narrative by Matthew, and not any words spoken by Jesus. So the longer version of the epistles do reference the gospels as scripture. However, since they are not recognized as genuine, this doesn’t validate that people of Ignatius time recognized the gospels as scripture. But it does suggest that by the time that the forgeries were written the gospels were called scripture.

Again, these gospel citations are in the longer versions which are deemed to be spurious, but it is the first time that words of the Gospels other than Jesus’ are called Scripture in early Christian writings. It is still significant that even in the longer versions which are deemed spurious there are still no New Testament citations other than to the Gospels.

That is not to say that there are not some wordings in these epistles that are also found in the New Testament epistles, they are just not referenced as Scripture. Scholars call these occasions “allusions”. So while there are wordings used that are also in the New Testament epistles, they are not called Scripture, even in the longer version. That suggests that at the time of the forgeries, while the gospels were starting to be called “Scripture”, the New Testament epistles were not.

What we are witnessing is that the definition of “Scripture”, words identified as the Word of God, appears to have expanded by the time of the forgeries. In Clement the word “Scripture” was limited to the Old Testament writings. Additionally, Clement treated the words of our Lord as the word of God. In the longer versions of Ignatius “Scripture” now refers to the Old Testament and the Gospels, but it does not refer to the New Testament epistles from Peter, Paul and so forth. Of course, since Scripture was only referred to in the longer versions that means they were written sometime after the original Ignatian writings and how much longer is not known.

So, through the times of Clement, and now Ignatius (around 107 A.D.), “Scripture” only refers to Old Testament writings.

[1] The Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians, Chap. IX. — Reference to the History of Christ, E-Sword Program

© copyright 2010 Mark W Smith, all rights reserved.

August 13th, 2010 Posted by | Movements | no comments

01.2.4 Ignatius – the First Apologist of the Early Church Fathers

In the epistle of Ignatius to the Romans, chapter 11 is called “Chap. XI. — Avoid the Deadly Errors of the Docetae” But it is in chapter 7, Let Us Stand Aloof from Such Heretics, of The Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans that Ignatius is known for his harsh criticism of sects that did not believe in the Eucharist, the “Christian” Gnostics.

They abstain from the Eucharist and from prayer, because they confess not the Eucharist to be the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which suffered for our sins, and which the Father, of His goodness, raised up again. Those, therefore, who speak against this gift of God, incur death in the midst of their disputes. But it were better for them to treat it with respect, that they also might rise again. It is fitting, therefore, that ye should keep aloof from such persons, and not to speak of them either in private or in public, but to give heed to the prophets, and above all, to the Gospel, in which the passion [of Christ] has been revealed to us, and the resurrection has been fully proved. But avoid all divisions, as the beginning of evils.

While Ignatius calls in other places to be on guard against false teaching, this is the most direct apologetic response in his writings. He says they “incur death”, that believers should “keep aloof” of such people and not even speak of them either in public or private! I imagine they walked on the other side of street, or turned away on the sight of them. There is no friendliness here, no tolerance.

These references by Ignatius are used by Catholics to help define the Eucharist as “transubstantiation.” Transubstantiation is the doctrine that the bread and wine communion service turn into the actual body and blood of Christ. The above quote does not actually say the elements are changed. In fact, this quote from Ignatius is very similar to Jesus’s own words found in Matthew:

And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it; and he gave to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body.
And he took a cup, and gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;
for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many unto remission of sins. [Matt 26:26-28]

It doesn’t appear that Ignatius was arguing for transubstantiation any more than Jesus was.

For more on Ignatius’ apologetics see Docetism.

While Ignatius’s style here was very similar to that of Paul, we will see that as the apologetic movement developed it became more argumentative in the style of the Greek philosophers. Nevertheless, we see apologetics appearing practically from the beginning of Christianity.

© copyright 2010 Mark W Smith, All rights reserved.

August 13th, 2010 Posted by | Movements | no comments